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ii2       HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

these persons were candidates for the secular ministry, his letter
shows that the transition from civic to Church schools of grammar
was under way at the beginning of the Seventh Century, but that
it was not yet a matter of course that bishops should make them-
selves responsible for ordinary education.

Probably it was in England that the new schools first made their
appearance.   The earliest schools of the kind of which we have
definite record were established there;  and curiously enough it
was to the activities of Pope Gregory that they indirectly owed
their foundation.   The facts are given in Bede's History :* " At
that time (631) the king of East Anglia was Sigebert, a good and
religious man, who sometime before had received baptism while
in exile in Gaul.  On his return home, as soon as he had regained
his kingdom, wishing to imitate what he had seen well arranged
among the Gauls, he instituted a school in which boys might be
taught grammar (litterez).   In this enterprise he was assisted by
Bishop Felix, who came to him from Kent and brought with him
ushers and teachers after the fashion of the Canterbury people."
In this passage, it will be noted, reference is made not only to the
East Anglian School at Dunwich, but to a still older one in
Canterbury which had been long enough in existence to be able
to furnish teachers for it.   When was the latter founded ? The
mention of Bishop Felix shows that plainly enough.  Felix was a
Burgundian who had been consecrated bishop by one of the com-
panions of Augustine, the monk sent as a missionary to England
by Gregory.   Consequently the school must have been estab-
lished as part of Augustine's missionary undertaking, and not
improbably at the same time as the church itself:   sometime
about 600.   But the association of the school with Augustine
raises two difficulties.  How did it come, in the first place, that a
monk had to do with a school presumably intended for the laity ?
Was it likely, in the second place, that a missionary sent to
England by Gregory would have run directly counter to his views
on the impiety of grammar teaching by founding a grammar school
in connection with his church ? The answer to the first of these
questions is that though Augustine himself was a monk, the church
was under secular, not monastic, rules.   To the second question,
the simplest answer might seem to be that the Canterbury school
. was not really a grammar school at all, but one that limited its

* iii, 18.